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Palm based Products

Palm oil are edible plant oils derived from the fruits of palm trees. Palm oil is extracted from the pulp of the fruit of the oil palm Elaeis guineensis and palm kernel oil is derived from the kernel (seed) of the oil palm. Palm oil is naturally reddish in color because it contains a high amount of beta-carotene.

Palm oil and palm kernel oil are two of the few highly saturated vegetable fats. Palm oil is semi-solid at room temperatures. Palm oil contains several saturated and unsaturated fats in the forms of:

  • glyceryl laurate (0.1%, saturated)
  • myristate (1%, saturated)
  • palmitate (44%, saturated)
  • stearate (5%, saturated)
  • oleate (39%, monounsaturated)
  • linoleate (10%, polyunsaturated)
  • alpha-linolenate (0.3%, polyunsaturated)

Palm kernel oil is more saturated than palm oil. Like all vegetable oils, palm oil does not contain cholesterol. Palm oil is a common cooking ingredient in the tropical belt of Africa, Southeast Asia and parts of Brazil. Its increasing use in the commercial food industry in other parts of the world because of lower cost and the high oxidative stability (saturation).

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Vegetable Cooking Oils

Vegetable fats and oils are lipid materials derived from plants. Physically, oils are liquid at room temperature, and fats are solid. Chemically, both fats and oils are composed of triglycerides, as contrasted with waxes which lack glycerin in their structure.

Although many plant parts may yield oil, in commercial practice, oil is extracted primarily from seeds. The melting temperature distinction between oils and fats is imprecise, since definitions of room temperature vary, and typically natural oils have a melting range instead of a single melting point since natural oils are not chemically homogeneous.

Although thought of as esters of glycerin and a varying blend of fatty acids, fats and oils also typically contain free fatty acids, monoglycerides and diglycerides, and unsaponifiable lipids.

vegetable oil

Coconut based Products

Coconut and Coconut based products could be categorized into kernel, shell husk and fibre based products. Desiccated coconut (DC) and coconut oil are the major produced out of coconut kernel.

The virgin coconut oil extracted from fresh coconut meat without chemical processes is said to be very rich in medium chain fatty acids particularly lauric acid, minerals, vitamins, anti oxidants and considered as an excellent neutraceutical. It contains about 50% lauric acid having qualities similar to mother's milk, thus confirming its disease fighting ability. Virgin coconut oil is widely used as a cosmetic ingredient.

Activated carbon is the most value added product developed from coconut shells and it is used in purification processors such as cleaning of gold, purification of water etc.

Coconut Fibre used to produce coir products such as coir twine, brushes, brooms, coir mats, rugs and geotextiles. It is also used to produce a range of rubberized coir based horticulture products such as coir pots, baskets, basket liners, seed trays, hanging baskets, weed control mats and coir poles.

coconut products

Cocoa based Products

Cocoa seeds (cocoa beans), the four intermediate cocoa products (cocoa liquor, cocoa butter, cocoa cake and cocoa powder) and chocolate are being used for cocoa based productions. Although the market for chocolate is the largest consumer of cocoa in terms of bean equivalent, intermediate products such as cocoa powder and cocoa butter are used in several areas.

Cocoa powder is essentially used as flavor in biscuits, ice cream, dairy drinks and cakes. Apart its use as flavor it is also used in the manufacture of coatings for confectioners or frozen desserts. Cocoa powder is also consumed by the beverage industry for example for the preparation of chocolate milk.

cocoa products

Biomass based Products

Biomass is carbon, hydrogen and oxygen based. Biomass energy is derived from five distinct energy sources: garbage, wood, waste, landfill gases, and alcohol fuels. Wood energy is derived both from direct use of harvested wood as a fuel and from wood waste streams. Waste energy is a biomass energy. The main contributors of waste energy are municipal solid waste (MSW), manufacturing waste, and landfill gas.

Biomass alcohol fuel, or ethanol, is derived primarily from sugarcane and corn. It can be used directly as a fuel or as an additive to gasoline. Biomass can be converted to other usable forms of energy like methane gas or transportation fuels like ethanol and biodiesel. Rotting garbage, and agricultural and human waste, release methane gas - also called "landfill gas" or "biogas."

Crops like corn and sugar cane can be fermented to produce the transportation fuel, ethanol. Biodiesel, another transportation fuel, can be produced from left-over food products like vegetable oils and animal fats.

biomass products